Return to Hughes-Buridan Book Review

Buridan's Term Definitions
for his
Theory of Meaning and Truth

(Hughes accepts these):
(Red-pink cell backgrounds are new-revised. See rev's. list at page bottom.)
(Latest rev: 16Jan2010, see
entailment. Doug.)


 attribute e.g., color of an object (esp. whiteness)   p. 8. classical reality is about objective attributes; quantum reality is about subjective interrelationships; for 'definitions' and descriptions of classical vis-à-vis quantum realities see our QELR of reality - Doug - 27Mar2006.
 categorematic words having signification outside the mind   p. 7.
 categorical one type of proposition   p. 12.
 complex dragon, white horse   p. 9.

: Complexity vis-à-vis simplicity.

Compare classical complexity and simplicity -

   Complexity  Simplicity
 flux  state
 change  stability
 non zero h  zero h
 evolution  immutability
 included-middle  excluded-middle
 subjective  objective
 qualitative  quantitative
 self-referent-self-recursive  other-referent-other-recursive
uncertainty  certainty
  *  *
 etc.  etc.

: Compleihty vis-à-vis sihmplihcihty.

C¤mparæ quantum compleihty amd sihmplihcihty -

  Sihmplihcihty Compleihty
flux phase
changæ   stabilihty
n¤n zær¤ h zær¤ h
æv¤luti¤n ihmmutabilihty
ihncludæd~mihddle excludæd-mihddle
subqjæctih objæctih
qualihtatih quantihtatih
sælf-referænt-sælf-ræcursihve ¤thær-referænt-¤thær-ræcursihve
umcærtainty cærtainty
 *  *
 etc.  etc.

Also see genericity and juxtapose classical notions and quantum memeos of genericity vis-à-vis specificity.

 concept(s) thoughts or ideas   p. 7. classical reality definitions use Platonic-Aristotelian concepts and ideas; quantum reality descriptions use Dawkinsian memes and memeos
 conjunctive p and q counts as true if both p and q are true; false otherwise   p. 19.

classical conjunctions assume, suppose, and presume an Aristotelian excluded-middle twixt p and q which we script as dichon(p, q); quantum comjunctions desnouer nature's physial included~middlings which we script as quanton(p,q)

See our Quantonics' Breakthroughs: included~middle.

See our How to Become a Student of Quantonics: included~middle.

 consistency a proposition's truth value recurs regardless of selected context

(Reviewer note: Clearly, classical consistency, as demanded by both Buridan and Hughes is unobtainable. For any proposition, there exist both an infinity of contexts obtaining falsity, and an infinity of contexts obtaining truth.) 
 Introduction, pp. 1-33.

classical consistency says, "always states the truth"

quantum comsistency says, "always changes."


proposition(s) establish(es) context in a convention

(Reviewer note: Here we see the edict of one context. Clearly this is contrived and artificial, not real. This edict belies an (false) assumption of substantial reality composing unchanging, observable, separable, isolable, individuistic objects. Such a reality, we know now, does not exist. Both Hughes and Buridan implicitly admit multiple contexts, though, by suggesting that:
* different propositions in the same convention, or
* the same proposition in different conventions, or
* different propositions in different conventions
all define various contexts.) 

 pp. 6-7,14. See comtext.
 contextual consistency

Buridan and Hughes insist that assessment of truth requires contextual consistency; any assessment manifesting contextual inconsistency must be false, e.g., "...a necessary condition of a proposition being should be contextually consistent, i.e., that it should not (either by itself, or in conjunction with any other true proposition) entail anything false." P. 19.

(Reviewer note: Clearly, classical consistency, as demanded by both Buridan and Hughes is unobtainable. We may only conclude given their insistence on consistency, that all propositions are by necessity, by edict, false.)

 pp. 19-20.

classical contextual consistency requires that reality be stoppable and hold still conveniently for dialectical analysis

quantum comtextual comsistency understands that reality is unstoppable and relentlessly changes and evolves


the setting for any proposition or propositions; includes generally accepted loci, chronology, sentients, form, language, semantics, etc.

(Reviewer note: Both Hughes and Buridan implicitly indoctrinate a non-general convention: Earth-location-here-centrism, anthropocentrism, now-centrism, epistemic-centrism, stereotypic-centrism, archetype-absurdity-centrism, etc.)

 pp. 6-7, 14. Attic dialectic is the convention assumed by Buridan and Hughes here: linguistically, logically, philosophically, scientifically, and socially. Dialectic is 'common,' however, it is non general. Dialectic is a "tragedy of commons" sense convention.
 copula syncategorematic intransitive verb + quantity  p. 12. All of Buridan's and Hughes' copula assume Aristotle's sillygisms are valid.
 correspondence TCs I-prop (subject & predicate stand for same thing),
A-prop (subject stands for something - predicate stands for everything subject stands for),
E-prop (negation of I-prop),
O-prop (negation of A-prop);
extensible to singular and indefinite
 p. 17-18.
 disjunctive p or q counts as true if one of p and q is true; false otherwise  p. 19. Ideal, radically formal, mechanical, analytic 'di' sjunctions are impossible in quantum reality. Why? Quantum reality is flux and flux are quantum likelihood omnistributionings which included~middle compenetrate, entangle, cohere, tunnel, coobsfect, and superpose one another in perpetual motion and perpetual change.
 empty a sufficient condition for the falsity of an affirmative proposition whose subject is empty  p. 18. See empty.
 entailment "Suppose we take any proposition, and suppose we give it the name 'A;' then the conjunction of the original proposition and a proposition asserting that A exists entails a proposition asserting that A is true...principle...of...truth entailment."  p. 22.

Classical entailment is causal, bivalent (EOOO (Either-One-Or-Other) "true or false" two-valued), 1-1 correspondent (linearly, objectively, unitemporally dependent), assumes significate and its signification "hold still," are classically stable, etc. See state. See dichon.

Quantum entailment evolves with quantum reality's absolute omni~comtextual (holographic) change, thus quantum~entailment issi enthymemetic, and omnitemporal. Quantum entailment issi omnivalent, absolutely dynamic PVRC (Perpetual Variable Rate Change), EIMA (Everywhere~Included~Middle~Associativity), and thus quantum~holographic, etc. See quanton.

Classical "truth entailment" is 'impossible' in quantum~reality! All quantum~truthings are agents of their own change and perpetually~evolve quantally.

Doug - 16Jan2010.

 exists a proposition's truth or falsity may be proven given the proposition stands for a material or objective entity, i.e., the proposition, if it exists, stands for substance or something substantial; existence of a proposition may be a function of time  p. 6.
 exists not a proposition's truth or falsity may not be proven if the proposition stands for something which does not exist  p. 6, and e.g., p. 24.

a proposition may be assessed false via any of the following:

  • contextual inconsistency
  • self contradiction
  • empty subject
  • contradiction
  • fails truth conditions
  • fails supposition
  • fails entailment
  • fails all p forms
 Introduction, pp. 1-33.
  • contextual inconsistency
    • quantum reality does not hold still therefore contextual consistency is impossible in quantum reality
  • self contradiction
    • A = A contradicts itself from Planck moment to Planck moment in quantum reality; classically then if we adhered this 'rule' we would have to conclude that "reality is false"
  • empty subject
    • quantum vacuum flux belies classical emptiness
  • contradiction
  • fails truth conditions
    • See 'true' below
  • fails supposition
    • classical supposition requires arbitrary analytic stoppability and hold-still-ability; quantum reality is non analytic, non stoppable, and non hold-still-able
  • fails entailment
    • classical entailment harbors essence of classical induction; quantum reality harbors induction only as a classical apparency; quantum entailment if there is such a meme is a metameme similar provability as a metameme of proof
  • fails all p forms
    • classical stand for assumes reality is objective and stable
    • classical negation assumes reality is objective and stable
    • quantum reality is absolutely animate and unstoppable, and quantum reality issi quantum~positive while asserting negation is subjective
 four p forms A, E, I, and O; f(subject), f(predicate)  p. 12.
 hypothetical one type of proposition
(tense, can, must, impossible, and, or, if, when)
 p. 12.
 indefinite lack quantity, explicitly of subject or predicate  p. 12.
 language conventional written or spoken signs  p. 7.
 linguistic one of two kinds of propositions visvis mental  p. 11.
 material one type of supposition (e.g., water has five letters)  p. 16.
 mental one of two kinds of propositions visvis linguistic  p. 11.
 object things that exist in past present or future  p. 8.
 paradox proof that a proposition is false proves the same proposition is true  p. 2, and 24.
 paradox not proof that a proposition is true proves the same proposition is false  p. 2, and 24.
 predicate second categorematic term in a propositional form  p. 12.
 proposition p = f(t); must be asserted; p = f(c); conventional meaning except by agreement  p. 6.
 self-referential Self-referential (SR) propositions require the extra requirement of contextual consistency; SR propositions that are contextually inconsistent are false  p. 19.
 self-referential proposition a proposition whose truth value may be different from its truth value were it non-self-referential; may be contextually inconsistent while its own truth conditions are met  p. 19.
 self-referential proposition (non-)

non-self-referential a proposition whose truth value is consistent when its truth conditions are satisfied

NSR propositions do not require the additional condition of contextual consistency to assess truth value; the correspondence truth conditions are adequate

 p. 19.
 signification either within the mind or outside the mind  p. 7. Classical either-or here exhibits SOM's dialectical wall. See EOOO.
 significative/personal one type of supposition  p. 16.
 simple horse, white  p. 9.
 singular designates one individual of subject or predicate  p. 12.
 subject 1st categorematic term in a propositional form  p. 12.
 supposition from supponit pro -> stands for; f(c)  p. 14. Students of Quantonics should also see Latin putare.
 syncategorematic words which complexify categorematic words  pp. 7-8.

a proposition may be assessed true via all of the following:

  • contextual consistency
  • self consistency
  • non-empty subject
  • consistency
  • satisfies truth conditions
  • satisfies suppositions
  • satisfies entailments
  • satisfies any p form
  • contextual consistency
  • self consistency
    • see 'false' above
  • non-empty subject
    • see 'false' above
  • consistency
    • see 'false' above
  • satisfies truth conditions
    • see 'false' above
  • satisfies suppositions
    • see 'false' above
  • satisfies entailments
    • see 'false' above
  • satisfies any p form
    • see 'false' above
 truth-condition(s), TCs See A, E, I, O, and see correspondence defined above.  pp. 12, 17-18.

Classical dialectical, analytic, state-ic, 1 to 1 correspondence is simply impossible in quantum reality.

Animate quantum~monitoring issi quantum~possible, however. We can then infer that animate, ensemble, but always both inconsistent and incomplete, QLOs are ~achievable.

 type of proposition categorical or hypothetical  p. 12.
 type of supposition significative/personal or material  p. 17.
 ultimate significate the end thing, outside the mind, signified (may be mental or physical, p. 8)  p. 7.
 words signify concepts  p. 7.

Return to Hughes-Buridan Book Review 

To contact Quantonics write to or call:

Doug Renselle
Quantonics, Inc.
Suite 18 # 368 1950 East Greyhound Pass
Carmel, INdiana 46033-7730

©Quantonics, Inc., 1998-2014 Rev. 16Jan2010 PDR — Created: 3Nov1998 PDR
(14Feb2005 rev - Repair of Buridan Definition of Correspondence TCs. Add fourth Quantonics Exegeses column. Reset table & cell constraints.)
(15Dec2005 rev - Update 'complex.')
(27Mar2006 rev - Add link to QELR of 'reality' under 'attribute.' Reset legacy red text.)
(11Nov2007 rev - Reformat slightly. Massive respell.)
(31Oct2008 rev - Replace wingdings and symbol fonts with gifs. Reset legacy markups.)
(16Jan2010 rev - Create new, and extend commentary on classical vav quantum 'entailment.')