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Einstein Minkowski Space-Time Diagram

Viewers of this classical diagram must remember that, in classical physics, space and time, like mass
and energy, are-remain undefined. They are [classically] 'measurable,' but undefined-undefinable in terms of any notions
more fundamental than themselves. Further realize that classical notions of 'time' are space/space.
As a result, what we see above is only a self-referent classical hypercomplex space-phase diagram.

Ask your physics professor to define: space, time, and mass —

Doug - 26Feb2003.

8Apr2010 - See Graphic Reference Note below - Doug.

1 We regard time here as an added fourth dimension to three space. Time is an imaginary space dimension of Minkowski's spacetime triangle. Time is also a real time dimension of his spacetime triangle. (Sort of complementary alteregos!) Space is a real space dimension of our spacetime triangle. Space is also an imaginary time dimension of our spacetime triangle. You can think, using this spacetime triangle in two modes: timelike or spacelike. For reasonably thorough coverage of time in its classical, relative, and quantum flavors see our QELR of time. Doug - 4Mar2008

If you think timelike (say to calculate an age of a traveler as perceived by self or an observer) time's dimension is real and space's dimension is imaginary. Timelike separated events appear earlier or later in real time for all observers. Earlier/later relations for timelike events are preserved.

If you think spacelike (say to calculate a distance traveled as perceived by self or an observer) space's dimension is real and time's dimension is imaginary.

Einstein's relativity theory limits itself to four dimensions. Note how quantum~scihænce has n¤ limits on space dimensions and uses Hilbert space as a tool. Doug (12Dec1996).

    Space-time distance calculation rules:

  • td = t•c (time distance is t difference•light speed; km )
  • td2 = td•td (square distance for time, t; km2)
  • sd2 = sd•sd (distance in space squared; km2)
  • D2 = sd2 - td2 (Yes, subtract! space-time distance squared; km2)
  • space-time distance = D2 (km)

Please be aware that Minkowski's spacetime concepts shown above
are classical. His mindset when he developed this idea
was classical. So was Einstein's. Both are essential SOMites.

In Quantonics, we are amazed that Einstein was able to unify space and time,
and show their identity. We are amazed because he did not perceive their underlying
deeper structure, i.e., flux. We choose to believe Einstein's Classical Thing-king
Methods (CTMs) put blinders on him. Had he perceived flux as their deeper structure,
we think he would have seen flux as deeper structure for both mass and gravity too!

But Einstein thought quantum science was:

Absurd! Unreasonable! Incomplete! Contradictory!


Now we know Einstein was wr¤ng (i.e., incomplete in his thing-king). But then one must ask,
"What else did he perceive wrongly/incompletely? And why?"
His model of time was classical.
He failed to see time and space as spawn of flux.
He perceived reality as a formal, deterministic, analytic function of homogeneous time.
He saw all real, substantial objects as y = f(t)!

He saw objects as whole and complete-consistent. But quantons are enthymemetic. Quantons are enthymemes.

Einstein told us, "No thing can travel faster than light speed."

Einstein denied as patently absurd quantum superluminal action at a distance.

Yet recent advances in quantum science demonstrate faster than light (FTL)
tunneling of quantons. See, among others, our brief on Raymond Chiao's FTL work nearby.
In that review, I did not say so, but it is worth your while to note that Chiao's
quantons travel superluminally through his barrier. The number he quotes of 1.7
times light speed will go up as he increases his barrier thickness! Why?
Because a quanton spends less time traveling in actuality.
It travels a further actual distance (increased barrier thickness)
in nonactuality at a superluminal rate.

Also note: Gisin and Zeilinger, among others, demonstrated superluminal spin correlation
twixt two quantons separated at least 10 kilometers. Superluminal means
no latency. Correlations are instantaneous!
(Search on Nicolas Gisin and Anton Zeilinger to learn more.)

On our classical diagram above we show an example where classicists assume
"you/we are just standing still." Physicists call this "zero momentum." This is a faux pas.
This is one of classicists' greatest failures of thought: that reality can "stand still," is "stoppable."
Quantum realihty issi abs¤lute flux. Thus realihty cann¤t st¤p. I(ht)-y¤u(wæ) cann¤t stand stihll.

Another classical faux pas arises from Einstein's silly space-time identity.
Einstein assumes that space is a proxy for time, that time is essentially space/space.
This mandate for space-time identity is a classical naïvety.
Why? Classical notions of 'space' can "stand still" due space's classical analyticity.
But if you think about it (do n¤t thingk about it),
you may see that time is non-classically analytic: time is unstoppable!
In our Quantonics efforts to fathom time's quantum depths,
we have found that time is n¤t just another spatial dimension.
Rather, in Quantonics, tih issi heter¤gene¤us, anihmatæ, EIMA, quantum fluxings.

Einstein treated space as geometrical. Extremely foolishly, Einstein, via his space-time 'identity,' treated time too as geometrical. Why? It was his only means of retaining any classical 'objectivity' in his theory(ies) of relativity. Elsewhere Don Howard (Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, USA) tells us that Einstein used Leibnitz' notions of 3D and 1T. But where Leibnitz had already concluded absence of objectivity (see subject, subjectiv and subjective below), Einstein bastardized Leibnitz by imposing a classical notion of invariant 'geometrical interval,'
to achieve his own last bastion of objectivity. See Howard's paper titled, 'Holism and Separability,' Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory, UND Press, 1989.

Why is geometry problematic?

What is geometry's protoprescient key axiom?


In quantum~reality there is n¤ such memeo as 'identity.'

Classical geometry, thus, is simply bogus. Dead on arrival.

Doug - 20May2009.

In quantum reality there is n¤, can be n¤, memeo of invariance, (especially as required by a classical notion of temporal and evolute 'identity;' due quantum reality's absolute change proem, all quantons in reality are always enthymemetic, always evolving, always changing, never-ever 'identical' to self and to any other quanton... Doug - 20May2009) n¤ invariant any 'kind of actuality.'

See our recent 2005 QELRs (and updates) of duration, intelligence, judge, logic (also see coquecigrues), measure, monitor, negation, positive, probability, science, simultaneity, subject, subjectiv, subjective, time, truth, uncertainty, etc.

Quantum timings are at least heterogeneous and REIMAR~coobsfectively n¤nlinear quantonic interrelationshipings.

Most adepts today, as of 2005, say that Einstein's beliefs should be referred as, "naïve and local realism." What Einstein believed was mostly just bogus SOMitic HyperBoole.

Why do classicists have this incredible problem understanding time?
First of all, try to ponder what time is yourself. It is, in physial reality, one of,
if not the most difficult memes to understand. We think our omnifficulties understanding
time are a large part of our omnifficulties understanding quantum reality.
But why do classicists appear to n¤t understand time? Irving Stein answered it best in our view:
classicists "have no coherent description of change," thus saying essentially that classicists refuse
to accept change as a quantum meme of heterogeneous emergence. Instead, they insist that
change must be objective, unicontextual (OGC), and unilogical (OGT) in a subject-object metaphysics (SOM).

For more on stoppability, see our recent Zeno's Paradice.
Also see our What Is Wrong with SOM's Logic.

Thank you for reading,


Please note that Doug's original of this hypercomplex phase diagram was drawn by him durationally over several years from about April, 1992 through about December (late), 1996. In 1996, Doug was just leaving a Directorship in a large diesel engine manufacturer in southern Indiana to start Quantonics. Their whole process is dialectical and their thermodynamics are all classically bogus, but they still do not understand that. Doug was hired to be their "creative director," but they as a company have no creative blood flowing, i.e., in any sense of quantum~reality. Their leadership is essentially Harvard-Marxian socialist: wholly antithetic quantum~reality, folks.

Activity on this page is exploding. A few of Earth's folk appear to be ready for some, however minor, quantum~changings! This page's hit rate has been growing steadily since Doug first published it as startup of our Quantonics website in February, 1998. Thank you!

People most interested in Minkowski's hypercomplex "triangle," and hopefully Doug's remarks below...surprisingly to Doug...are not from USA. Most of you are from Middle-East and Eastern Europe. Great!

USA has given up on a lot of important memes like real education. Marxists have taken over and ruined public and tertiary academe. USA is dying! As we watch. Maybe we'll learn a lesson, and perhaps not.

Anyway, a huge number of you are interested in how this diagram came about.

That happened as part of Doug's research process in starting Quantonics.

Doug's purpose was to show that Einstein blew it! Just like Aristotle, just like Plato, just like Buridan, and Aquinas, and Newton, and countless other classical nitwits...all of them blew it. All classicists have blown it and are still blowing it. Why? They believe reality is objective, state-ic, material, formal, canonic, mechanical, rational, analytic...all of which rolls up into a very old and very dead term: dialectic.

Trouble is, reality is quantum and NOT dialectical. Quantum~reality is alive. Dialectical reality is dead. That explains succinctly why West and western thought is passé, extinct.

This page is part of Doug's effort in using accumulated extensive research evidence to show that.

Specifically, if you want to follow Doug's footsteps in this local page's regard, see Fred Alan Wolf's Parallel Universes, Chapter 12, p. 120 of that text a 1988 first edition by Simon and Schuster. Doug first reviewed that text, fairly thoroughly, in 1992. Subsequently, Doug kept going back to it for reference material and learning.

In 1996, Doug wrote these words in mast page of Chapter 12:

"I spent two days - December 11-12, 1996 on this chapter. Still don't understand completely. I think Wolf could have used a clearer format."

Over a period of 4-6 years, Doug drew said graphic above and gradually improved it over many subsequent years, results of which you see in this page.

A huge mistake Wolf makes in his text narrative in Chapter 12 is to claim as Einstein did that time stands still at light speed. Assumption which produces said claim is bogus: that approximately 1014 cycles per unit spatial reference is fastest clock in our universe. That is simply wrong! Fastest known clock in quantum~reality, Planck's rate, is at least 29 orders of magnitude above that. So any photon traveling in deep space twixt galaxies is still aging. That is a quantum~relativistic essential you must understand. Simply, even at light speed, nothing stops: all keeps changing fast and everywhere and completely!!! Doug.

Actually light's flux is so slow, that we cannot use light to see a vast amount of our universe. Imagine a bookcase about 15 kilometers high. A credit card is about 789 microns thick. Bookcase height is what we cannot see directly with our eyes. Credit card thickness is what we can see! All numbers are very coarse...

Too, you must understand, for example, that Earth is moving around Sol at about 18 miles per second, Sol is moving around our Milky Way at about 180 miles per second. Nothing in reality stops! Nothing in reality can achieve "zero momentum," even relativistically. All is in absolute flux and absolute change borne of that flux: quantum~flux. If reality were stopped, your favorite swing...wouldn't. Doug.

This page is a good starting place for classical vis-à-vis quantum understanding, but it will not fill your psychic~pneumatic plate!

Try Zeno next and Doug's A Quantum Pendulum.

Best to you, and thank you for all these fabulous hits!

Doug - 8Apr2010.

To contact Quantonics write to or call:

Doug Renselle
Quantonics, Inc.
Suite 18 #368 1950 East Greyhound Pass
Carmel, INdiana 46033-7730

©Quantonics, Inc., 1996-2016 Rev. 18Dec2010  PDR Created 12Dec1996  PDR
(12Sep2000 rev - Add anchor to FTL comments above. Our FTL Flash (Chiao link above.) now links to this page.)
(21Nov2000 rev - Change Classical 'Thinking Modes' to 'Thing-king Methods.')
(19Mar2001 rev - Add Relativistic Space Travel example link to graphic. Add a title to page.)
(15Dec2001 rev - Add top of page frame-breaker.)
(2Nov2002 rev - Repair Zeilinger link.)
(1Feb2003 rev - Offer 4D space-time caveats in red text.)
(2Feb2003 rev - Update graphic to attend red text changes.)
(7Feb2003 rev - For browser compatibility, substitute GIFs for some Symbol fonts.)
(26Feb2003 rev - Add red text m,l,t comments just below page top graphic.)
(14Oct2003 rev - Typos.)
(7,11Apr2005 rev - Reset legacy red text. Add red text box and many novel QELR links. Add missing comma and quotes in added text box.)
(17Jan2006 rev - Add links to 7Apr2005 update text box. Reset red text.)
(7-8Mar2008 rev - Slightly reformat.)
(10Dec2008 rev - Replace some fonts with gifs. Reset legacy markups.)
(24Feb2009 rev - Add link to recent QELR of 'aware.')
(19Apr2009 rev - Update Zeilinger home page.)
(20May2009 rev - Add lots of new links and some red text commentary.)
(2,8Apr2010 rev - Add 'What else' link to Einstein's list of problematics under our QELR o 'conscious.' Add page top remarks re Doug's source material for graphic.)
(18Dec2010 rev - Add 'SOM's Box' link as another 4D depiction.)

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